“A Person-Centred, Process-Relational Conceptual Frame: Foundation for a Trans-Disciplinary Paradigm of the Human Being?”

By Yvan Ellingham, England

Since Rogers’ formulation of his 1950s theory statements which have served as the conceptual foundation of the person-centred approach, there have been significant developments of person-centred theory, not least by Rogers.
Today, it may seem these developments have created a smorgasbord of divergent schools.
I don’t believe this to be the case. In line with previous writings, I see these developments as diverse gropings towards formulating a more comprehensive/global theory, a paradigm-one that will integrate the Naturwissenschaftliche (Natural Science) and Geisteswissenschaftliche (Human Science) disciplinary wings of contemporary person-centred theorizing. On the premise that human understanding is currently seeing the emergence of an overarching process-relational (organismic/holistic) paradigm, my paper sets forth a process-relational conceptual frame whereby I attempt to integrate the theorizing of Rogers, Gendlin, Prouty, Greenberg, Mearns, Schmid and Kriz to lay the foundation for a trans-disciplinary paradigm of the human being.

IVAN ELLINGHAM gained a PhD in Counselling Psychology studying under Professor C. H. ‘Pat’ Patterson at the University of Illinois, USA. He worked for over twenty years as tutor and supervisor on counsellor training courses; for fourteen years as a counselling psychologist in secondary mental health care in the English NHS.

“Create Space for the Client through Body-Consciousness”

By Willi Rös, Czech Republic

In Person-Centred Approach, the therapists create through their specific presence a space where the clients can be themselves. As this space is also naturally linked to our bodies – and as the body, as a relational means of communication, plays an important role in the therapy – I want to show in my presentations how presence and relationship can be established not only with words, but also via conscious sensing of somatic reactions and feelings. In my work with clients, I often realize that I am most centred and able to offer this space through (only) physical presence or contact.
In this lecture, I will talk about my experience when approaching the clients through this physical presence and touching, and explain in what way it can help them to explore their freedom of being. I will explore why I think that this accompanying through bodily presence is a non-directive approach.

WILLI RÖS, native German, has four children. He worked as PCA psychotherapist in private practice first in France, now in Czech Republic. He is trainer and supervisor, former boardmember of AFP-ACP and of PCE-Europe, and co-organiser of the PCE Symposium 2014 in Prague. He has been developing his PCE body-approach including touch for over 10 years.

“Client-Centered Psychotherapy from Standpoint of Cultural-Activity Theory: CCT as a Psychotechnical System”

By Veniamin Kolpachnikov, Russia

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate a new mode of analysis of psychological practices, based on Psychotechnical Approach – a modern development of Cultural-Activity Theory of the famous Russian psychologist Leo Vygotsky. Client-Centered Psychotherapy (CCT) is reviewed and analyzed on the basis of the introduced definition of a concept of “psychotechnical
system”. The personal characteristics of a CCT specialist, the goals, the conceptual and practice system of CCT, and the interaction system between client and psychotherapist are described and discussed. It is shown that this psychotechnical view is useful for understanding the process and results of CCT and may potentially be used for the analysis of any psychotherapeutic approach.

VENIAMIN KOLPACHNIKOV works for many years in private practice as a Client-Centered psychotherapist. He teaches PCA to Master students in National Research University Higher School of Economics (Moscow, Russia), where he is responsible for the Person-Centred Approach specialization at the Masters program Counseling Psychology. Personology. He is one of the co-founders of the Russian PCA Society.

“From PCA Psychologist to PCA Consultancy”

By Columbus Salvesen, Norway

PCA is highly relevant for Communicative Infrastructure, Teambuilding, Leadership style and Conflict Resolution. The Human Factor, in this sense, influence values, efficiency, including financial success in a broad and general way.
I would like to introduce and discuss what we as PCA therapists need in order to be able to contribute in Organisation- and Working Life as well as in social and political conflicts. Issues to be presented:
• From The Therapy Room to Working – and organisational Life – Consultancy style, Methods and Interventions.
• Are some principles, and certain attitudes and skills enough?
• How to utilize and further develop our approach in our Globalizing World?
• Is there a simple set of Universal Principles to be utilized in interactive communication which would make the difference, and which we as PCA therapists possess?
The presentation will be followed by a time of interactions.

COLUMBUS SALVESEN, initially a clinical psychologist, moved from the therapy room into organisation and working-life, focusing on initiating learning processes which strengthen participation and communication and thus lead to transparency and personcentered attitudes and skills. He has had assignments world-wide involving mediation and diverse HRD programs such as leadership and team building, coaching, conflict resolution and development of communicative infrastructure.

“PCE in prison and hospital’s chaplaincy (spiritual care) fields in Suisse romande”

By Daniel Levasseur, Switzerland

During the 7 years I worked as a prison chaplain and now at the hospital where I work, PCE has been an important tool in my work. In both of these fields, it is a time of crisis for the people I meet. Just as in all aspects of their lives, the acknowledgement of spirituality helps them go through such a time. The prison environment is an ideal place for those who practices our approach. The strong confidential bond and the trust we build with the inmates, allow an improvement of their well-being during their stay and a real personal journey. The
other professionals working in prisons do not necessarily work towards the same objective, which makes it hard for us chaplains to collaborate with them. It is completely different in hospital settings such as in the CHUV (Lausanne University Hospital). The team of chaplains is wanted, welcomed and well integrated in the various services. In addition to the visits,
a tool for the evaluation of the spiritual distress of the patient (STIV-DAT) has been applied.

DANIEL LEVASSEUR is 54 years old, and is both Canadian and Swiss. He is married and has three adult children. At the moment, he works as a chaplain at the Lausanne University
Hospital (CHUV). He is also for 20 years counsellor and trainer in the counselling program of the Swiss PCE society.

“Snoezelen – Un monde de sens” 

A movie of Idriss Gabel

Presented by Jean-Marc Priels, Belgium

The Snoezelen Approach is a multisensory way to create contact, wich makes sense in the encounter and caregiving with people with special needs. The movie shows deep relationships developed by professionals working with people living with severe intellectual and multiple disabilities, dementia or severe psychic problems. This film invites you in their daily life and in the atmosphere of long-term health care institutions. Snoezelen is also a humanistic approach that gives meaning to the work of practioners who are convinced that the unconditional positive regard and the other core conditions are fun - damental attitudes in home care organizations. I will be happy to share with you a part
of my work inspired by PCA and by Snoezelen. The film will be followed by a moment of exchange with the audience.
Snoezelen – Un monde en quête de sens. A film by Idriss Gabel – Nameless Productions – Wallonie Image Production – 56’ – 2015 – https://vimeo.com/113075911

JEAN-MARC PRIELS is psychologist and PCA psychotherapist working in Brussels in a psychiatric hospital and in a counselling centre. He proposes encounter group programs,
supervision and training sessions. He is a member of the International Pre-therapy Network and of the editorial board of ACP Pratique et recherche.
IDRISS GABEL is a Belgian film maker and is the director of Snoezelen – Un monde en quête de sens.

“Towards a person-centred, developmental/growth model of madness:  Garry Prouty and the animal symbolicum”

By Yvan Ellingham, England

Carl Rogers spoke of the inappropriateness of the medical model for dealing with psycho - logical disturbance. A more appropriate model, he said, was ‘a growth or developmental model’. Certainly with regard to such a severe psychological disturbance as ‘madness’, there is as yet no adequate person-centred developmental/growth model.
In my paper I first define what the general characteristics of such a model would be. Secondly I apply the model to the research findings of Garry Prouty, developer of Pre-Therapy. On such a basis I argue that a developmental relationship exists between catatonia and psychotic hallucinations, a conclusion that implies the need to amend and revise Eugene Gendlin’s theory of experiencing.

IVAN ELLINGHAM gained a PhD in Counselling Psychology studying under Professor Cecil H. ‘Pat’ Patterson at the University of Illinois, USA.
He worked for over twenty years as tutor and supervisor on counsellor training courses; for fourteen years as a counselling psychologist in secondary mental health care in the English NHS.

“The interdependence of self and congruence – a visual understanding”

By Ozana Nițulescu, Romania

While striving to reach a unitary understanding of congruence, I have come up with a new perspective on the self. It is based on Rogers’ theory of personality and it brings nothing new from a theoretical standpoint, but it does bring clarity and fluidity to the way I view the self, congruence and incongruence, and my task as a person-centred therapist. I have come to view the self as a sort of funnel-shaped organic structure, in perpetual movement and exchange with the outside. The surface of it – the wider part – has contact with the surroundings and it contains the here and now processes and interactions. Towards its depths, where the shape narrows, are the defining traits of the self, what is essential and
continuous, the more or less permanent parts of individuality. There is meaning-making at all levels and the self-concept, the organismic self, and all other elements are spread
throughout all the structure’s levels.

OZANA NITULESCU has only relatively recently begun to “take herself seriously as a person-centred psychotherapist”. Among other consequences, it boosted her enthusiasm for her profession and interest for the theory and its development. She has so far been most interested in congruence and existential angst. As a person-centred psychotherapist, she is also inspired by her background as an art museum educator.

“Life review /La relecture de vie”

By Anne Prongué Salvadé, Switzerland

During the process of aging, everyone, sees his/her body degrading and the role he/she plays in the society decreasing. This double degradation encourages the contact of the person with his/her past and this situation lends itself to a life review. Person-centred counselling and active listening stimulate a life review and helps the person to evolve and adapt at the moment when he/she is getting weaker. Going back through life events is a dynamical process that takes places when others dynamics are weakening.
An empathic listening lets the person choose what points of his/her life he/she wants to approach and this can be achived in many ways. It can be a process of many steps following many paths. It should be carried out with respect for the person and his/her dignity. He/she might be weakened but still alive, until his/her last breath.

ANNE PRONGUÉ SALVADÉ has, after studying architecture, raised her four children and then started a training program in Person-centred counselling, which she finished in 2013. She is now working half-time as an architect, practices PCA counselling as a volunteer for Pro Senectute Vaud (non-profit foundation to help the elderly), and has her own private practice in Lausanne.

“The Person-Centred Approach in Scotland: Has it grown?”

By Susan Stephen & Catherine Cowie, Scotland

In 2006 PCT Scotland, an association for person-centred therapists, conducted a survey to demonstrate the extent and influence of the work being done by its members in communities
across Scotland. The results were reported by Cornforth & Lambers (2010). In December 2015, responding to a potential crisis in the Person-Centred Approach (PCA) in Scotland, we
decided to conduct a second survey. An updated version of the questionnaire was used that included both original and additional questions. In this paper we will present what we discovered about the scope and characteristics of the PCA in Scotland today, compare this to the position in 2006, and describe the changes identified. We will consider the implications for the PCA in Scotland now and into the future.
Reference: Cornforth, S. & Lambers, E. (2010). The Person-Centered Approach in Scotland: A Report. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 9, 25-36.

SUSAN STEPHEN (formerly Cornforth) was Secretary of PCT Scotland (2004-2007) and member of the WAPCEPC Board (2008- 2014). She is a person-centred therapist and trainer, and is a researcher and doctoral candidate at the University of Strathclyde. She was one of the researchers who conducted the 2006 survey.
CATHERINE COWIE is a member of the PCT Scotland Coordinating Group (2010–present) and has been Secretary since 2012. She is a person-centred therapist in private practice and completed an MSc in Counselling at the University of Strathclyde in 2014.

“‘All you need is love’ Is psychotherapy healing through love?”

By Peter F. Schmid, Austria

Nothing moves and occupies us as much as love in its multifaceted meanings. Struggling to understand what love exactly means in our interpersonal relationships, in our professional work, in private life, art, philosophy and ethics, in faith etc. fills books, lifetimes, history. It seems to be a limitless endeavour to understand its existential meaning, its force, its pleasure, its threat. Does love play a role in psychotherapy? And if so, what kind of love? And how does it ‘work’? Is it adequate to love a client? Is it love that cures in therapy? Is love the core of what therapy, facilitating, ‘healing’ is about? Or is this simply a naïve or even harmful way to understand love as the therapeutic in therapy. After a profound analysis of the matter and description of my personal stance which role which kind of love plays in psychotherapy, the person-centred one in particular, I look forward to a discussion among the participants.

PETER F. SCHMID is a person-centred psychotherapist. He collaborated with Carl Rogers in the eighties, is founder of person-centred training in Austria, co-founder of the World
Association for Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapy & Couseling and of the European Network. He has numerous publications on person-centred psychotherapy science and its
practice and training. He is also theatre director and playwright (Person-centred trilogy; Life management – a kick-off meeting; Faust – The Tragedy’s Third Part).

“Is psychopathological model  relevant to the Person-Centered Approach ?”

By Geneviève Odier, France

In contrast with the psychiatric viewpoint, the notion of disease is not prevalent in the approach. For the person-centered psychotherapist, psychological maladjustment is naturally taken into account as a part of the whole and unique person. The notion of a fixed state does not exist either. The more or less fluid developing process of the person is a sign of constant reorganization. Should classifying clients’ disturbances be necessary, then psychological maladjustments ought to be considered not as symptoms of generalized and stigmatizing diseases but as signs of difficulties in potential actualization.

GENEVIÈVE ODIER is a French psychotherapist. She studied psychology and psychopathology in Paris. She is a trainer in the Person-Centered Approach. She is the author of articles on the approach and her main opus is Carl Rogers. Etre vraiment soi-même (2012, Paris, Eyrolles). Geneviève is a member of the of the editorial board of ACP Pratique et recherche.